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A sapphire is a member of the corundum family. The most popular color for sapphires is blue but they come in many colors such as green, yellow, pink, white, orange, purple, brown and colorless. The blues of a sapphire range from brilliant cornflower blue to deepest midnight. There is a rare variety of sapphire called Padparadscha. It is orange-pink in color and is more costly than typical blue sapphires.

Some ancient writers claimed the Ten Commandments were written on sapphire. Ancient marriage partners had great faith in the stone, believing it would not shine if worn by the wicked or impure. They were reported to be an excellent all-purpose medicine; an antidote against poison and having the power to stop bleeding and cure disorders of the eye. Sapphires were considered to be so powerful they continued to protect the original owner even after being sold.

The throne of celestial judgment is supposed to rest on sapphire. According to the Book of Revelation, it is the second stone in the foundation of the New Jerusalem.

One ancient writer noted that “the figure of a ram or bearded man engraved on a sapphire has the power to cure a person from many ailments and free him from poison or demons.” At the time it was believed to remove all impurities and foreign matter from the eyes. It is said that Charles IV used an oval sapphire for this purpose.

Oriental tradition described the sapphire as a guiding gem, one that warded off evil omens and brought good fortune to its owner. the nineteenth century explorer Sir Richard Burton, who translated The Arabian Nights, owned a large sapphire and claimed that it brought good horses and prompt service wherever he went.

Ranging from pale sky-blue to the deepest indigo, the sapphire was believed to have the power to attract divine favor. Ever since it was called the “gem of gems” by the bishop of Rennes in the twelfth century, it has been a favorite for ecclesiastical rings. The ancient Egyptians said that wearing a sapphire would make the stars move into a favorable position and that the star sapphire — a sapphire in which the crystalline structure reflects light in the form of a six-rayed star — appeared especially for this purpose.

Since the sapphire was supposed to produce such beneficent magic, evil could not prevail in its presence. The very proximity of the stone would kill reptiles as well as venomous insects. The sapphire was long honored as a talisman against evil spirits. When King Solomon adopted the sapphire for his seal, the stone became even more of a symbol of wisdom and clear thinking. This latter quality is the one it still represents today as the birthstone of September.

Some believe that its powers include inner peace and spiritual enlightment.   It is also believed to heal those afflicted with mental illness and rheumatism. Sapphires are thought to help in telpathy and clairvoyance as well as an antidepressant.  The sapphire is a symbol of loyalty and trust. 

Sri Lanka, Australia, East Africa and Southeast Asia are the main sources of sapphires.

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